Originating out of the Latin word “ius” and “dicere” meaning “law” and “to speak” respectively, jurisdiction is the area of operation of a legal entity. Such jurisdiction could be legal, notional, abstract, or concrete with clearly defined geographical boundaries. In essence jurisdiction refers to the capabilities, powers, and responsibilities to administer justice within the particular sphere of operation entrusted.

Substances of jurisdiction are derived from public international law, constitutional law, and above all; conflict of laws. One of the common features of modern governance is delimiting the authoritative domains of executive, legislative, and judiciary; the three pillars of democratic set up.

Ordinarily however the term jurisdiction is most widely applied in the judicial spheres. It denotes both authoritative and geographical extent of power and control of the respective court. Three basic principles of jurisdiction guiding the judiciary are persona; territorial; and subject matters.